Vaccines in India have been saving human life from the past 200 years and more. The worldwide vaccination campaign has successfully eradicated various life threatening diseases. Childhood vaccinations have contributed substantially in reducing the mortality rate and subsequently saving the future of the country.
As the research and development to inoculate continue to combat the present challenges, the future of immunization still remains untouched evolution. Diseases like HIV/AIDS, malaria, Leishmaniasis continue to baffle the researchers.
From among the various hurdles impeding the development of an effective vaccination for these diseases, a few are mentioned below-
• Lack of infrastructure
• Inefficient knowledge
• Scarcity of research and development resources
• Dispersed population
• Monetary impediments of developing countries
Researchers continue to explore new possibilities to safeguard human life. The strategies focus to engage into lowering down the ratio between cost and efficiency. High effectiveness, low cost and accessible delivery in every nook and cranny of the country are the prime goals of vaccine developers.
New-fangled development techniques
The first ever vaccine of Small Pox was devised using live ‘attenuated’ virus. Attenuation refers to weakening of the virus to the degree where its potency to cause harm is evaded but it is capable to provoke immune response in the body.
Most of the inoculation methodology incorporates attenuated viruses, like measles, protozoan, and influenza vaccines. Apart from attenuation, killed form of virus, bacteria, pieces of inactivated toxins are used to evoke an immune response. The novel idea of developing immunization for children can be broadly classified into two classes:
• Live recombinant vaccine
Make use of a bacterium from one disease as a delivery device for an immunogenic protein from another infectious agent. This methodology is used to enhance the immune response in some cases and otherwise while giving the actual agent as a vaccine.
• DNA vaccines
The process involves DNA coding for a particular antigen, which is directly injected into the muscle. The DNA itself injected into the individual’s cells, which in turn garners the antigen from the infectious agent.
The future of immunization has a lot of potential and challenges in its way. The prospects of development are dependent upon the success of medical research. Formulating vaccines that are simpler to administer, are potent to survive without refrigeration and will evoke a more significant and long-lasting immune response.