How Smallpox Faced A Complete Eradication?


Whenever a particular illness stops its circulation in a particular region, it is considered eliminated from that area. However, if the disease is eliminated from the entire face of the earth, then the phenomenon is called disease eradication.  To ensure both eradication and elimination of the disease, vaccine development is given the highest priority; the next slot in the vaccine researchers’ to-do list is secured by clean and quick vaccine delivery.

The first-ever disease eradication

Thus far, only one disease, smallpox, has been eradicated in 1980. The decades of initiatives taken by the World Health Organization (WHO) led World Health Assembly to declare smallpox disease as eradicated. Prior to its eradication, the long-in-the-tooth disease had claimed 35% lives of the infected people and left many hapless blind or scarred.

The eradication of smallpox was possible by coordinated efforts put in by the WHO and other health organizations. A well-structured surveillance was the key to eradicate smallpox from its root that had spread all over the world. As soon as a new case of smallpox was registered, the health officials were required to identify other such fresh cases in the same region and administer Ring Vaccination.  The final case of smallpox was reported in Somalia (1977).

Why smallpox was simpler to eradicate?

  • Also referred to as variola, smallpox had an obtrusive presence as its patients quickly developed a peculiar form of rashes.
  • Second, the time taken for the symptoms to appear was shorter than other diseases
  • Third, such short duration had helped in quickly administering the vaccination and containing the disease
  • Final nail in the coffin was when the WHO took consistent efforts to introduce immunization chart for variola and train the vaccinators. This step was taken to protect those who were not having lifelong immunity to the disease.

With the complete eradication of variola, many hopes were raised to eliminate other maladies such as malaria, polio, dracunculiasis, to mention but a few.

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An Introductory Guide To The Vaccine Of Pneumococcal

The most common cause of blood infection, pneumonia, meningitis and ear infection has been a Streptococcus pneumonia bacterium. All of these diseases come under the category of pneumococcal disease. The disease is common during early spring as well as winter and spreads from person-to-person. Some cases of pneumococcal infection have culminated to extensive brain damage. Few invasive pneumococcal infections can also take the life of infants.


Who should be given a pneumococcal vaccine?

Primarily, the pneumococcal vaccine is administered on three types of individuals –

  • Infants (under the age of 2)
  • Old people (above the age of 65)
  • Young adults and children having serious kidney or heart condition derived from pneumococcal disease itself

How often PCV13 is given?

  • The infants receive three separate injections – one at two months, followed by another at four months and the last one when during 12-13 months after the birth.
  • Senior adults – over the age of 65 years – require a single vaccination, protecting them for life.
  • The adults and young children require one pneumococcal vaccination or a five-yearly vaccination, depending on the criticality of the health problem.

Variants of pneumonia vaccine

There are two kinds of pneumococcal vaccine:-

  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV, Prevnar 13 or PCV13) – The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is administered on infants under the age of two. In some countries, the vaccine has become an integral part of the childhood vaccination program.  The development of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine India has risen to a new high with several leading vaccine laboratories contributing in its production.
  • Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) – This is another vaccine, which is administered on people of age 65 and above. Also, the vaccine is given to those people having a continuing health condition.

Close to 90 types of pneumococcal bacterium have been identified; although, eight to ten of them cause fatal infection. The PCV13 gives protection against 13 strains; similarly, PPV gives protection against nearly 23 strains. With the progresses in medicine, the vaccine development laboratories will soon come up with holistic cures for some of the ills such as pneumonia.

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Why a Vaccine for HIV Remains a Pipe Dream?

In 1990, the growth of many infectious diseases was checked. However, during the same time, a virus, still unchecked, had wiped out millions. Researchers were always left speechless when the question of a vaccine to this deadly virus popped up. The virus was known as HIV. Detected in 1984, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/ Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) had nearly taken 30 million lives. The major concern for many researches is that HIV, as per now, cannot be prevented since no vaccine has been developed for it. The virus destroys the entire immune system by lowering the levels of CD4+ cells – the main constituent of a human body’s immune system. The reasons, which have stunted the growth prospects of an HIV’s vaccine are many; read on to know.


Reasons as to why there is still no vaccine for an HIV virus

In April 1984, researches declared that they would soon roll out a vaccine to the HIV virus within a span of just two years. The reasons to such heightened levels of optimism are still unknown. The factors held responsible for no development of an HIV vaccine are listed below.

Till date, there has been no recovery made from HIV virus. Unlike other infections such as chickenpox and measles – where a diseased person naturally made recovery with the help of medicines – in HIV no care or medicine can help in reversing the immunity’s deterioration. Moreover, whenever a person gets successfully recovered from a disease (say measles, chickenpox, etc.), the system gets immune to the ailment; such system becomes the model to develop a vaccine. However, no such human immune system is found that has withstood the attack of an HIV virus.

One name that is consistently striving to bring the best of vaccines to the world is Hilleman Laboratories. The company was established in Delhi and has adopted high-class vaccine development strategies for contributing to healthcare research India. The presence of state-of-the-art vaccines laboratories in the company’s premises has helped it grow by leaps and bounds. The company is a joint venture between merck & wellcome trust for creating sustainable vaccine development. Any other details can be found at –

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The Science Of Vaccination- An Insight From Hilleman Labs

Get to know the approach and vaccine research that Hilleman Labs, employs to provide better health care facilities to developing countries.

There is big gap between the healthcare facilities provided by the developing nations and developed nations. Vaccination programs help developing countries, defend deadliest of diseases. Hilleman Labs, a partner of Merck & Co. and Wellcome Trust, have channelized their vaccine research to help people fight and overcome fatal diseases in developing countries. Vaccine manufacturing needs research, ultra-modern techniques, and artisan. The artisans at Hilleman Labs focus on:

·         Diseases of importance to developing countries
·         Transformational technology for vaccine development and administration

The vaccines like rotavirus vaccines, human papilloma virus vaccines, TB vaccines, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, and Hepatitis A vaccines are developed for diseases responsible for highest mortality and morbidity rates in developing countries. The vaccines are developed and delivered based on disease targets and antigens, which are calculated on epidemiologic data and disease burden. The heat stability, usability, and affordability of the vaccine are improved either by using existing technology or inventing a new one.

The vaccine research model of Hilleman Labs encapsulates the following:

·         Due-Diligence
·         Identify Vaccine Antigen
·         Identify Vaccine Technology
·         Optimization
·         Preclinical Development
·         Clinical Phase I / II
·         Technology Transfer for Manufacturing

The Project selection process:

·         Public health interest (Possible reasons why this vaccine is needed)
·         Technical probability (What is the probability of vaccine’s success)
·         Financial feasibility (Cost and investment involved in vaccine manufacture and licensing)
·         Keeping in mid National Regulatory Authority (NRA) and WHO Guidelines
·         Consulting stakeholders and peer groups

“It is estimated that globally 0.6 million children under the age of 5 die annually due to rotavirus diarrhea and another 2 million are hospitalized. 90% of these deaths occur in developing countries.” –Courtesy: Hilleman Labs.

Public health systems that can ensure fairness in global health scenario will be a reality only through easy and affordable access to life-saving immunization programs. Well equipped with transformational vaccine research technologies, we will deliver new age preventive healthcare to the developing world in the near future.

Our expertise in vaccine research is channelized towards helping people in the developing world to fight the deadliest of diseases with vaccines that are within their reach. A first-of-its-kind initiative, Hilleman Laboratories is an equal joint-venture partnership formed between Merck & Co., a global research-driven pharmaceutical company and Wellcome Trust, a global charitable foundation dedicated to human and animal health. Headquartered in India, Hilleman Laboratories is an international organization strengthened by the presence of global leadership and scientific team, which is working incessantly to develop safe, effective, affordable and sustainable vaccines for developing countries

Thermo stable Rotavirus vaccine is one of the current projects that Hilleman Labs, has been working on. The research on rotavirus vaccine, examine formulations to improve stability, usability, portability and affordability of thin strips or granules.  Making vaccination a medium to combat deadly diseases helps save lives.

Hilleman Laboratories is a vaccine manufacture  and committed to developing high impact, TB vaccinesHepatitis A vaccines, affordable vaccines for people in developing countries in an innovative and sustainable manner.

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Examine the rise and fall of immunization cost in developing countries and its usefulness

For the developing countries, vaccines have made feasible some of the greatest public health successes in the last decade. The supply of high-impact Immunization helps avert an estimated 2.5 million child deaths each year. Vaccines manufacturing laboratories are striving to spread awareness about the up and coming technologies & processes executed in the field of vaccine development. The process of vaccine development involves high investment costs and the facilities require the optimum use of resources. Apart from the cost, there is no dearth of speculations involved when it comes to acquiring high quality and effective vaccinations for the general public. It also requires adequate research and development, quality control and quality assurance in the field of vaccination. However, the investment cost has been an important aspect to maintain world-class infrastructure for vaccine. As resources and facilities for vaccines manufacturing are available in abundance, on the other hand laboratories have to face a number of problems to initiate a research and development in developing countries. In addition, the world’s vaccine market is very small—below 2 percent of the pharmaceutical market—attracting few suppliers.

It has been examined that the prices of traditional vaccines have decreased significantly. The immunization cost of traditional six vaccines of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI), measles, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, oral polio and BCG has shown a radical decrease in cost. Because the fixed costs of development of these vaccines have been covered long ago, and because their production costs have been lowered due to the learning curve and economies of scale, their prices are relatively low.  In the past years, there has been excess production capacity of these vaccines as new producers have entered the market, thus sales at low prices covered the variable costs of producing extra doses of vaccine, and did not require additional capacity.

Hilleman Laboratories is intended to participate actively to develop and optimize vaccines for developing countries to ensure healthy tomorrow while keeping its investment costs in control. The lab understands the constant need of vaccines by developing countries and for this reason puts more emphasis on the supply of high impact immunization for kids and even promotes awareness campaigns in rural areas about how to keep track on immunization schedule for kids. The lab develops high-impact, thermal stable and cost-effective pneumococcal vaccine and conjugate vaccine for developing countries. Hilleman Laboratories was set up in 2009, the first time a research charity joined hands with a drug maker to develop affordable vaccines to prevent diseases that commonly affect people in low-income countries. The firm has successfully promoted and supplied a heat stable, affordable and easy-to-use rotavirus vaccines used to prevent diarrhoea in children.

Corporate Office and R&D Laboratory

MSD Wellcome Trust Hilleman Laboratories Pvt. Ltd.
2nd Floor, Nanotechnology Building, Jamia Hamdard

Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi – 110062 (India)

Ph: +91 11 30997700
Fax: +91 11 30997711


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Prepare Immunization Chart for Children to Bestow Good Health to your Newborn Baby

immunization chart
Good health is the best gift you can give to your new born baby, as we all are aware of the fact that newborn babies are prone to get affected easily by viruses or diseases because of their low immunity level in comparison to adults. Therefore newborn babies need to be cared the most which is feasible when parents are well informed and literate about all the major or minor aspects of child immunization and prepare an easy to remember immunization chart for children after consulting an experienced doctor. Your family doctor could also suggest you the best laboratories in your town from where you can get all the vaccines for your children.

If you are expecting a baby then I recommend you to research as much as you can as it will surely provide information about the recent development in immunization and vaccine schedule for children. Hence your child can enjoy an immunized life. Here are some research based vaccine recommendations that would certainly help you to prepare an immunization chart for children. However the wise way is always to consult your family doctor to take help and make sure you would not skip even a single vaccination of your baby.

At the time of birth, vaccinations that are suggested are Hepatitis B: Hepatitis B vaccine (HBV); recommended to give the first dose at birth within 12 hours, but may be given at any age for those not previously immunized.

The child of age group 1 to 2 months, the recommended vaccine is Hepatitis B: Second dose should be administered 1 to 2 months after the first dose.

The children of 2 months, the suggested vaccines are for DTaP: Diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine. Hib: Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine, IPV: Inactivated poliovirus vaccine, PCV: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, Rota: Rotavirus vaccine.

During the age of 4 months, the recommended vaccines are DTaP, Hib, IPV, PCV, and Rota. Once your baby reaches the age of 6 months, the recommended vaccines are DTaP, Hib, PCV and Rota.

With the arrival of new advancements in the health sector, world’s best laboratories are contributing their best possible efforts and funds towards initiating global immunization programs and campaigns in rural areas of developing countries. As the world is witnessing the change in terms of economic and social development, health sector has also shown an outgrowth therefore the development of vaccines has increased rampantly to meet the growing needs of the inhabitants from all across the globe.

According to CNN Health, the most notable change to the vaccination schedule in the 2013 version is that what had been two schedules — for ages 0 to 6 and 7 to 18 — has been consolidated into “one comprehensive list, covering children from birth through age 18”. There are some suggestive measures that can be taken up and would definitely help you to be well-informed about the proficient laboratories that are well-known and gained substantial prominence in vaccine optimization for children.

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Development of Vaccines in India – Supporting the Growth

vaccine research
Development of vaccines has been a matter of concern for the number of laboratories in India, every year Research labs in India are investing in the process of vaccine development and child immunization in order to ensure maximized health scale. As we are witnessing the era of health revolution, routine child immunization has played a significant role in preventing childhood deaths and disability; thousands of children in India continue to die from vaccine preventable diseases each year. According to a recent report, Hilleman Laboratories will be investing 90 million pounds (nearly Rs 650 crore) in seven years to develop vaccines, including one to treat diarrhea, for which it will conduct research in India.

There are a number of health institutions that are readily preparing immunization chart for children from 1 month to 6 years of age group, this will provided to parents so that not even a single child immunization goes skipped and parents can keep a track deliberately. As per most of the medical institutions over the world, rotavirus diarrhea leads to annual deaths of five to seven lakh children all over the globe, out of which one lakh are in India alone. Therefore, it’s good to be aware about the situations happening in the world rather than becoming a victim of such fatal disease. Other is the name of the disease hepatitis a and hepatitis b, hepatitis A vaccine cost is quite expensive in Indian market, but still you will get it at lesser prices from some of the charitable hospitals and medical institutes. Hepatitis B vaccines are being inclusive in the national vaccination schedule.

An overview has been made about the disease in the conference – Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver caused by Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. HBV is transmitted through contact with infected blood or body fluids, unprotected sexual intercourse and the perinatal route but not through casual contact. About two billion people worldwide have been infected with the virus, an estimated 360 million live with chronic infection, and at least 600,000 people die annually from acute or chronic consequences of Hepatitis B, such that Hepatitis B is a major public health problem worldwide.

India has restored its image internationally when it comes to the successful development of vaccines and immunization policy. Vaccine policy of India is not rigid and streamlined the practice vaccines in India, recently in December, 2012 World Health Organization (WHO) has approved the vaccine policy adopted by India. With this approval India became the first country in 2012 to pass the stringent levels of seven indicators that is put forward by the WHO that is made much more stringent every time conducted by a team of 12 international experts headed by a member of WHO.

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